Figure reference: Timing of trauma deaths within UK hospitals by Tom Leckie, Ian Roberts, Fiona Lecky (Trauma Audit and Research Network, University of Manchester, and Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust – formerly known as Hope Hospital)


Over the last decade, there have been continued improvements in trauma and intensive care unit (ICU) care, related to damage control techniques and evidence-based ICU pathways. This study aimed to evaluate the contemporary distribution of trauma deaths after the widespread implementation of modern trauma and critical care principles. A better understanding of the distribution of trauma deaths may be used to improve trauma systems.


4,185,009 patients were analyzed and thirty-four percent of all deaths occurred within the first 24 hours of admission. The factors most associated with death in the first 24 hours were severe abdominal trauma (73%), penetrating trauma (55%), and severe extremity trauma (58%). The distribution of deaths was seen to fall rapidly after the first 24 hours and continued to be flat for 30 days in all subgroups analyzed.


Early deaths, however, remain a significant challenge, specifically from non-compressible abdominal hemorrhage and extremity trauma. Primary prevention and early hemorrhage control must continue to be a focus of research and trauma systems.


Accidental hypothermia (a core body temperature ≤ of 35° Celsius) in the emergency department (ED) is frequently observed in trauma patients and is associated with poor outcomes. As early hemorrhage control, infusion of warm blood or IV fluids helps prevent hypothermia, thereby leading to improved patient outcomes. Read about portable fluid warming device, °M Warmer System.


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